Department of Paediatric Neurology and Developmental Medicine, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.
While cognitive impairment, major depression, and fatigue have been well documented in adult patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), there is still little information regarding MS-associated cognitive disabilities in infants and adolescents who represent 3 to 5% of all MS cases. Recent studies show that cognitive decline related to MS profoundly interferes with academic success and psychosocial adjustment. Neuropsychological dysfunction affects quality of life more significantly than mere Expanded Disability Status Scale is able to reflect. We herein give an overview of the knowledge available to date. Affective and emotional disturbances together with other comorbidities interfering with cognition are also reviewed. Finally, possible suggestions and future directions for the assessment of cognitive capabilities in children with MS are envisioned.