Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Why to quit-graphic ads influence less ready to quit smokers to call smokers' quitlines


 2012 Jul 26. [Epub ahead of print]

Do different styles of antismoking ads influence the types of smokers who call quitlines?


Public Health and Policy Research, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.


This study examined the relationship between television antismoking advertisements and the proportion of smokers who call a smokers' quitline who are ready to quit or have high confidence in quitting. The primary data of interest came from completed intake interviews of smokers. Using a generalized linear model, we modeled the proportion of Quitline callers who are ready to quit and/or have high confidence in quitting. The primary explanatory variable was monthly target audience rating points (TARPs) for antismoking advertisements, a measure of broadcast media exposure, obtained from the state's media buyer. The proportions of callers ready to quit and with high confidence in quitting were negatively associated with total TARPs. This result, over all ad types, was driven by why to quit-graphic ads. These results suggest that why to quit-graphic ads influence smokers who are less ready to quit or have lower confidence they can quit, likely new quitters, to call the Quitline.

Intracellular Human Papillomavirus E6, E7 mRNA Quantification Predicts CIN 2+ in Cervical Biopsies Better Than Papanicolaou Screening for Women Regardless of Age


Intracellular Human Papillomavirus E6, E7 mRNA
Quantification Predicts CIN 2+ in Cervical Biopsies Better Than Papanicolaou Screening for Women Regardless of Age

Deirdre Pierry, MCLS, MT(ASCP), SM(NRM), MB; Gerald Weiss, MD; Benjamin Lack, BA; Victor Chen; Judy Fusco, MPA, MT(ASCP)

NContext.—Cervical cancer screening in women younger than 30 years relies on cervical cytology because of the poor performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in this age group. Objectives.—To determine the performance of in-cell HPV E6, E7 mRNA quantification (HPV OncoTect) for the
detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women younger than 30 years. Design.—We analyzed 3133 cytology specimens from a screening population of women aged 19–75 years investigate HPV OncoTect as a triage/secondary screening test for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance
(ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology in women younger than 30 years. Test results were compared to histology in 246 cases. Results.—The sensitivity of E6, E7 mRNA was 89% for CIN 2+ and 100% for CIN 3+ lesions in women 30 years and older. In women younger than 30 years, the sensitivity of E6, E7 mRNA for CIN 2+ lesions was 88% for CIN 2+ and 92% for CIN 3+ lesions. Abnormal cytology ($ASCUS) exhibited a sensitivity of 89% for CIN 2+ and 100% for CIN 3+ in women 30 years and older and 96% sensitivity for CIN 2+ and 93% sensitivity for CIN 3+ in women younger than 30. The specificity of E6, E7 mRNA was .80% for CIN 2+ and CIN 3+ in both groups of women compared to a specificity of abnormal cytology of ,10% for CIN 2+ and CIN 3+ in both groups. Conclusions.—HPV OncoTect demonstrates a performance that would be effective for ASCUS/LSIL triage in women including those younger than 30 years.

(Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2012;136:956–960; doi: 10.5858/

From Jeff Myers and Jonathon Herbst: Hypersensitivity Pneumonia-Role of Surgical Lung Biopsy


Hypersensitivity Pneumonia
Role of Surgical Lung Biopsy
Jonathon B. Herbst, MD; Jeffrey L. Myers, MD

Lung biopsy often plays a key role in identifying patients with hypersensitivity pneumonia, especially in the absence of a typical history. A 69-year-old woman with a 2-year history of unexplained dyspnea on exertion underwent surgical lung biopsy for diagnosis of diffuse lung disease thought to represent idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Her biopsy showed honeycomb change and fibroblast foci suggestive of usual interstitial pneumonia, but also showed areas of cellular interstitial pneumonia with chronic bronchiolitis and a pattern of  granulomatous inflammation typical of hypersensitivity pneumonia. The classic features of hypersensitivity pneumonia in surgical lung biopsy are emphasized, including a bronchiolocentric cellular interstitial pneumonia, chronic bronchiolitis, and poorly formed nonnecrotizing granulomas. As illustrated in our patient, sometimes subtle histologic clues are key in separating hypersensitivity pneumonia from usual interstitial pneumonia and other forms of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Making the distinction is important given differences in treatment strategies and natural history.

(Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2012;136:889–895; doi:

From Phil Cagle and Sergio Oviedo: Diffuse Malignant Mesothelioma


Diffuse Malignant Mesothelioma

Sergio Pina Oviedo, MD; Philip T. Cagle, MD

Diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) is an uncommon cancer with great clinical significance because it
currently remains an incurable disease, and most patients die within months after diagnosis. Although DMM incidence is leveling off or decreasing in developed countries because of the strict control of asbestos use, it is increasing in countries without adequate asbestos control. In some settings, benign, reactive mesothelial hyperplasias and organizing pleuritis can be difficult to differentiate from DMM and vice versa, and the variety of DMM’s histopathologic features generates an extensive list of differential diagnoses with other malignancies, particularly, metastatic malignancies, which are more frequent in the pleura than are primary malignancies. These two issues are the topic of discussion in this review, along with a brief presentation of a case of DMM that presented in a 66-yearold man with recurrent, right pleural effusions, and in whom, diagnosis of DMM had not been suspected clinically, radiographically, surgically, grossly, or initially, on frozen section. It was not until focal invasion into the skeletal muscle was discovered on permanent sections that
a diagnosis of DMM could be established.

(Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2012;136:882–888; doi: 10.5858/arpa.2012-0142-CR)

From U Pennsylvania: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Genomics: Update for Clinicians


 2012 Jul 31. [Epub ahead of print]

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Genomics: Update for Clinicians.


Department Psychiatry, The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104-6209, USA, joelia1@verizon.net.


Attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is familial and highly heritable. Several candidate genes involved in neurotransmission have been identified, however these confer minimal risk, suggesting that for the most part, ADHD is not caused by single common genetic variants. Advances in genotyping enabling investigation at the level of the genome have led to the discovery of rare structural variants suggesting that ADHD is a genomic disorder, with potentially thousands of variants, and common neuronal pathways disrupted by numerous rare variants resulting in similar ADHD phenotypes. Heritability studies in humans also indicate the importance of epigenetic factors, and animal studies are deciphering some of the processes that confer risk during gestation and throughout the post-natal period. These and future discoveries will lead to improved diagnosis, individualized treatment, cures, and prevention. These advances also highlight ethical and legal issues requiring management and interpretation of genetic data and ensuring privacy and protection from misuse.

Penn State: "bad things happen in dark corners"


How Penn State is like the Kremlin

"The Penn State public-relations apparatus truly was something to marvel at. The university wielded power with very little public scrutiny. For the administrators and the marketing professionals they hired, the goal was to control the university's image by savagely controlling information; the truth had nothing to do with it."

Chinese social networking and the "increased willingness to express opinions about government and politics"


 2012 Jul;15(7):345-9.

Microblogging, online expression, and political efficacy among young chinese citizens: the moderating role of information and entertainment needs in the use of weibo.


1 Division of Language Studies, Community College of City University , Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong .


In 2011, China's Internet population reached over half a billion users and the popular Twitter-like social networking service, Weibo, has been adopted by half of the users since its launch in August 2009. Given the potential of the Internet to facilitate a civic culture in the authoritarian state, the use of Weibo and its effects on citizens' political attitudes and behaviors are of important concern. A survey of 499 Weibo users found that intensity of use was related to increased willingness to express opinions about government and politics, the perception that one has the ability to participate in politics, and feelings that the government is not responsive to the demands of citizens. Moreover, the above relationships were moderated by the motivations of Weibo use, such that information motives strengthened the relationships while entertainment motives weakened the relationships.

"the possible professionalization of healthcare ethics practices"?


 2012 Jul 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Not in Isolation: How History Can Inform the Debate on Professionalization.


Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia and Director, Ethics Services, BC Children's & Women's Health Centre, 4500 Oak Street, K4-161, Vancouver, BC, V7W 3E8, Canada, ldagincourt@cw.bc.ca.


As ethics services have become more integrated into healthcare organizations, the controversy regarding the possible professionalization of healthcare ethics practices has re-emerged. Some of the debate focuses on whether healthcare ethics practice possesses the attributes of a 'true profession.' This study examines the history of the professions and the relevance of this historical material, as well as sociological insights, for contemporary concerns. It explores whether the mismatch between traditional models of professional knowledge and the knowledge foundation for healthcare ethics is at the core of these concerns. It also takes the position that given the role healthcare ethics plays in assisting patients, families, healthcare providers, and others with complex moral decisions it is important to work towards developing standards that can be used to guide and evaluate the work.

The dance of death: "overweight, unfit, suddenly hurled into intense physical activity,..."

 2012 Jul 24;345:e4956. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e4956.

The dance of death.

"“So,” I asked, “how did it happen?”
“Well,” he said, “I was at a wedding and I got up to dance—that’s when I felt the pain in my chest.”
I was curious; for the third time in a matter of weeks a man in his 50s had had an infarct while at a wedding. The risk factors were obvious: overweight, unfit, suddenly hurled into intense physical activity,..."

From U Ulster: Quality of life and healthcare utilisation in cystic fibrosis


 2012 Jul 26. [Epub ahead of print]

Quality of life and healthcare utilisation in cystic fibrosis: A multicentre UK study.


School of Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland, BT37 0QB.


What is the health status and healthcare utilisation associated with pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) in cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection?Patients with CF from 5 UK CF centres attended two visits, 8-12 weeks apart. They were classified at visit 1 as being in one of the three health states: no current PEx; 'mild' (no hospitalization) and 'severe' (hospitalisation) PEx. All patients completed the CFQ-R and EQ-5D, a clinical form and performed FEV1 at visit 1 and 2. Annual healthcare utilisation data were collected.Ninety-four patients, 28.5 (8.2) years; FEV1, 58.7 (26.8)% were recruited. 60 patients had no PEx, 15 had a mild and 19 had a severe PEx at visit 1. EQ-5D and CFQ-R data showed that the worse the exacerbation, the poorer the health related quality of life. There were strong relationships between the CFQ-R and EQ-5D domain scores. The mean rate of PExs per patient per year was 3.6 (1.5 hospital, 2.2 home). The mean length of stay per hospital PEx was 9 days.As exacerbation status worsens patients experience worse health related quality of life. There is a significant healthcare burden associated with treatment of PEx and long term prophylaxis.

From the Village Voice: Bloomberg's Nanny-State


Mike Bloomberg's Nanny-State Tackles Breast Feeding; Mayor Plans To Hide Baby Formula

"Mayor Mike Bloomberg's nanny-state has officially made the jump from figurative to literal -- the mayor nowactually wants to play nanny (sigh).

Starting September 3, the city will encourage hospitals to hide baby formula behind locked doors in an effort to encourage (trick) new mothers into breast feeding (double sigh).

Under the city Health Department's "Latch On NYC" initiative, 27 of New York's 40 hospitals also will agree to get rid of promotional nicknacks -- like bags, mugs and other items the baby industry gives the mothers of newborns -- that display the logos of baby formula companies.

The move is the latest in Bloomberg's over-reaching health initiative (read: insulting attempts to protect you from yourself). 

In recent months, the mayor has banned food donations to homeless shelters because the city is unable to monitor the sodium content of the donated food. He also proposed a ban on sugary drinks like soda being served in containers larger than 16 ounces. It also seems as though the mayor's health cops have booze in their sights, but no modern-day prohibition has been implemented...yet."

From Toho U-Japan: Presence of circulating lung cancer tumor cells correlates with EGFR mutation in circulating free DNA


 2012 Aug;32(8):3339-44.

Clinical Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells and Free DNA in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.


Department of Respiratory Medicine, Toho University Omori Medical Center, 6-11-1 Omori-Nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8541, Japan. kazutoshiisobe@aol.com.


Aim: This pilot study assessed correlations between circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating free DNA (cfDNA) of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after acquisition of resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.


CTCs were counted using the CellSearch system (Veridex). cfDNA was analyzed for EGFR mutation status by the Cycleave real-time PCR assay.


Twenty-four patients participated in this study. CTCs were detected in 8 of 24 cases (33.3%), at a mean of 2.6 CTCs per 7.5 ml blood (range: 1-24). EGFR mutations in cfDNA were detected in 6 out of 24 cases (25%). The EGFR mutation detection rates in cfDNA were significantly higher in patients with ≥2 CTCs per 7.5 ml (100%) than in those with <2 CTCs per 7.5 ml (10%) (p=0.0001).


The presence of CTCs was correlated with the positivity of EGFR mutation in cfDNA.

Ob-gyn hospitalists: Can this new physician model improve quality and safety?


 2012 Aug;207(2):81-6. Epub 2012 Jun 23.

Obstetrician/gynecologist hospitalists: can we improve safety and outcomes for patients and hospitals and improve lifestyle for physicians?


PeaceHealth St. Joseph Medical Center, Bellingham, WA.


Over the last 5 years, a new obstetric-gynecologic hospitalist model has emerged rapidly, the primary focus of which is the care and safety of the laboring patient. The need for this type of practitioner has been driven by a number of factors: various types of patient safety programs that require a champion and organizer; the realization that bad outcomes and malpractice lawsuits often result from the lack of immediate availability of a physician in the labor and delivery suite; the desire for many younger practicing physicians to seek a balance between their personal and professional lives; the appeal of shift work as opposed to running a busy private practice; the waning amount of training that new residency graduates receive in critical skills that are needed on labor and delivery; the void in critical care of the laboring patient that is created by the outpatient focus of many physicians in maternal-fetal medicine; the need for hospitals to have a group of physicians to implement protocols and policies on the unit, and the need for teaching in all hospitals, not just academic centers. By having a dedicated group of physicians whose practice is limited mostly to the care of the labor and delivery aspects of patient care, there is great potential to address many of these needs. There are currently 164 known obstetrician/gynecologist hospitalist programs across the United States, with 2 more coming on each month; the newly formed Society of Obstetrician/Gynecologist Hospitalists currently has >80 individual members. This article addresses the advantages, challenges, and variety of Hospitalist models and will suggest that what may be considered an emerging trend is actually a sustainable model for improved patient care and safety.

Increased risk of death from H1N1 flu associated with fall outbreak, chronic lung disease, cancer in prior year, immunosuppression, and delay in hospitalization


 2012;2012:914196. Epub 2012 Jul 15.

Risk Factors for Mortality among 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Hospitalizations in Maricopa County, Arizona, April 2009 to March 2010.


School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.


We analyzed individual-level data on pandemic influenza A/H1N1pdm hospitalizations from the enhanced surveillance system of the Maricopa County Department of Public Health, AZ, USA from April 1st, 2009 to March 31st, 2010. We also assessed the the risk of death among A/H1N1 hospitalizations using multivariate logistic regression. Hospitalization rates were significantly higher among Native Americans (risk ratio (RR)  =  6.2; 95% CI: 6.15, 6.21), non-Hispanic Black (RR = 3.84; 95% CI: 3.8, 3.9), and Hispanics (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 2.0, 2.01) compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Throughout the spring, 59.2% of hospitalized patients received antiviral treatment; the proportion of patients treated increased significantly during the fall to 74.4% (Chi-square test, P < 0.0001). In our best-fit logistic model, the adjusted risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients was significantly higher during the fall wave (August 16, 2009 to March 31, 2010, OR = 3.94; 95% CI: 1.72, 9.03) compared to the spring wave (April 1, 2009 to August 15, 2009). Moreover, chronic lung disease (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.7, 7.4), cancer within the last 12 months (OR = 4.3; 95%CI: 1.3, 14.8), immuno-suppression (OR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.84, 8.9), and admission delays (OR = 4.6; 95% CI: 2.2, 9.5) were significantly associated with an increased the risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients.

"College credential fraud may seem like a nitpicking offense for throwing a nonviolent offender into the overcrowded prison system for a tour of the seasons. But Wheeler embarrassed Harvard..."


Adam Wheeler Went to Harvard

Jim Newell

from The Baffler No. 20

"College credential fraud may seem like a nitpicking offense for throwing a nonviolent offender into the overcrowded prison system for a tour of the seasons. But Wheeler embarrassed Harvard; his puncture of arbitrary power was so trifling that, paradoxically, it couldn’t be ignored. Harvard officials had little choice but to make an example of him through an aggressive, custom-tailored prosecution whose real aim was to restore the correct order of things. Adam Wheeler, after all, is merely a mediocre public school graduate from Delaware. But Harvard—well, everyone knows that Harvard shines across the fair land as a beacon of meritocratic upward mobility universally accessible to a nationwide corps of upper-middle-class teenagers of arbitrary intellectual ability."

Monday, July 30, 2012

Association of Available Parkland, Physical Activity, and Overweight in America's Largest Cities


 2012 Sep;18(5):423-30.

Association of Available Parkland, Physical Activity, and Overweight in America's Largest Cities.


Department of Health, Leisure & Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina (Dr West); Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, East Carolina University (Dr Shores); and Department of Kinesiology at Michigan State University, East Lansing (Dr Mudd).



: To examine associations between the densities of available parkland, parkland provided per capita, and levels of physical activity (PA) and overweight in urban United States.


: Cross-sectional correlation research using data drawn from the Trust for Public Land's 2010 City Park Facts and The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). City Park Facts is a report containing "basic information on urban park systems-from acreage, to facilities, to staffing, to budgets, to usership, and more" for America's 85 largest cities. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is a state-based surveillance system that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive health practices, and health care access primarily related to chronic disease and injury.


: Sixty-seven metropolitan statistical areas in the United States that provided data for both reports. Participants: Randomly selected adults aged 18 years and older who participated in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey in the 67 metropolitan statistical areas.


: Total parkland per acre of metropolitan area was correlated to inactivity, engaging in recommended levels of moderate or vigorous PA, engaging in recommended levels of vigorous PA, and body weight. Parkland acreage per 1000 residents was correlated to these same variables. Multilevel models considered these relationships while controlling for race, family income, and age of respondents and accounting for clustering by metropolitan statistical area.


: There were significant, positive correlations between park density and PA (rs = 0.37, n = 67, P < .01) and between park density and exercise (rs = 0.35, n = 67, P < .01), and a negative correlation between park density and being above normal weight (rs = -0.32, n = 67, P < .01). Adjusted multilevel models showed that parkland density in the highest versus lowest quartile was associated with significantly higher odds of meeting PA guidelines (aOR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.08-1.30) and reduced odds of being overweight/obese (aOR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76-0.95).


: Each of these findings substantiates the need for providing parkland in a community. As such, this research helps to support the notion that the development of a strong park system may lead to positive PA and health outcomes for that community.

From Johns Hopkins: Epigenetics as a Therapeutic Target in Breast Cancer


 2012 Jul 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Epigenetics as a Therapeutic Target in Breast Cancer.


Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 1650 Orleans Street, CRB I, Room 153, Baltimore, MD, 21231-1000, USA, rconnol2@jhmi.edu.


Epigenetics refers to alterations in gene expression due to modifications in histone acetylation and DNA methylation at the promoter regions of genes. Unlike genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations are not due to modifications in the gene primary nucleotide sequence. The importance of epigenetics in the initiation and progression of breast cancer has led many investigators to incorporate this novel and exciting field in breast cancerdrug development. Several drugs that target epigenetic alterations, including inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), are currently approved for treatment of hematological malignancies and are available for clinical investigation in solid tumors. In this manuscript, we review the critical role of epigenetics in breast cancer including the potential for epigenetic alterations to serve as biomarkers determining breast cancer prognosis and response to therapy. We highlight initial promising results to date with use of epigenetic modifiers in patients with breast cancer and the ongoing challenges involved in the successful establishment of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer.

Neurological paraneoplastic syndromes in lung cancer patients



Neurological paraneoplastic syndromes in lung cancer patients.


Department of Neurology, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.


Lung cancer is recognized among the most frequent causes of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS). Neurological syndromes in subjects with systemic malignancy remain a clinical and diagnostic challenge. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of NPS, their clinical manifestation and association with onconeural antibodies in patients with lung cancer. Fifty patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of PNS participated in the study. Neurological evaluation consisted of the Rankin scale (mRS), the Barthel index (BI), and testing for the presence of onconeural antibodies by means of indirect immunofluorescence, as screening, and Western blotting as confirmation. The majority of lung cancerpatients (64%) aged 62 ± 10 had NPS symptoms. Their neurological condition and daily living activities were reasonable: mRS (1.0; 0.0-4.0) and BI (100; 7.4-100) scores. Classical PNS were found in 30% of cases and included sensory neuropathy (16%), paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (12%) as the most frequent symptoms. Autoimmune reaction was observed in 42% of lung cancer patients and in 20% was represented by well-characterized onconeural antibodies. Anti-Hu antibody was identified as the most frequent. In conclusion, PNS signs in lung cancer patients have both classical and non-classical features. In the course of SCLC only well-characterized onconeural antibodies were identified. The presence of well-characterized onconeural antibodies is strongly associated with classical features of PNS.

Zombie allusions: They just keep on coming-except at CW, where their absence has to be explained by its president


CW president explains lack of ‘Battle Royale,’ zombies, on the network

New diagnostics for melanoma detection: from artificial intelligence to RNA microarrays


 2012 Jul;8(7):819-27.

New diagnostics for melanoma detection: from artificial intelligence to RNA microarrays.


Department of Dermatology, Paracelsus Medical University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.


Early detection of melanoma remains crucial to ensuring a favorable prognosis. Dermoscopy and total body photography are well-established noninvasive aids that increase the diagnostic accuracy of dermatologists in their daily routine, beyond that of a naked-eye examination. New noninvasive diagnostic techniques, such as reflectance confocal microscopy, multispectral digital imaging and RNA microarrays, are currently being investigated to determine their utility for melanoma detection. This review presents emerging technologies for noninvasive melanoma diagnosis, and discusses their advantages and limitations.

Method for sampling tissue for research which preserves pathological data in radical prostatectomy


 2012 Jul 16. doi: 10.1002/pros.22556. [Epub ahead of print]

Method for sampling tissue for research which preserves pathological data in radical prostatectomy.


Department of Histopathology, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK. ayw23@cam.ac.uk.



The diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is a challenging global healthcare issue requiring significant molecular research. Such research frequently utilizes fresh frozen human tissue which needs to be obtained in a manner acceptable to the pathologist which does not compromise tumor diagnosis or staging.


Radical prostatectomy specimens were handled in a standardized method before being sliced fresh. Leaving the margins intact, multiple cylindrical cores were removed using a large skin punch and the sites were marked on a prostate map. The cylindrical cores were placed onto individual, pre-numbered foil squares and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Prostate maps were aligned with formalin-fixed paraffin embedded hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the sampled slice to select tumor regions. Frozen tumor tissue cylinders were processed taking one section for hematoxylin and eosin staining, 6 µm × 50 µm sections for molecular studies and a further section for hematoxylin and eosin staining. This was performed for the length of the cylinder.


A total of 150 prostates have been removed and sliced using this technique. Pathological assessment remained uncompromised. Using the sequential hematoxylin and eosin stained frozen sections, cellularity could be monitored closely in tissues processed for research. The yield of RNA and DNA extracted was high (tumor mean 2.4 µg (RNA) and 12.7 ng per 300 µm tissue) and of high quality (mean tumor RIN 5.9).


This novel, rapid sampling and processing method provides high quality tissue for research without compromising pathology. 

"consumption of fructose at 25% of energy requirements for 10 wks, compared with isocaloric consumption of glucose, may contribute to the development of components of the metabolic syndrome"


 2012 Jul 24;9(1):68. [Epub ahead of print]

Consumption of fructose- but not glucose-sweetened beverages for 10 weeks increases circulating concentrations of uric acid, retinol binding protein- 4, and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in overweight/obese humans.




Prospective studies in humans examining the effects of fructose consumption on biological markers associated with the development of metabolic syndrome are lacking. Therefore we investigated the relative effects of 10 wks of fructose or glucose consumption on plasma uric acid and RBP-4 concentrations, as well as liver enzyme (AST, ALT, and GGT) activities in men and women.


As part of a parallel arm study, older (age 40-72), overweight and obese male and female subjects (BMI 25-35 kg/m2) consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 wks. Fasting and 24-h blood collections were performed at baseline and following 10 wks of intervention and plasma concentrations of uric acid, RBP-4 and liver enzyme activities were measured.


Consumption of fructose, but not glucose, led to significant increases of 24-h uric acid profiles (P < 0.0001) and RBP-4 concentrations (P = 0.012), as well as plasma GGT activity (P = 0.04). Fasting plasma uric acid concentrations increased in both groups; however, the response was significantly greater in subjects consuming fructose (P = 0.002 for effect of sugar). Within the fructose group male subjects exhibited larger increases of RBP-4 levels than women (P = 0.024).


These findings suggest that consumption of fructose at 25% of energy requirements for 10 wks, compared with isocaloric consumption of glucose, may contribute to the development of components of the metabolic syndrome by increasing circulating uric acid, GGT activity, suggesting alteration of hepatic function, and the production of RBP-4.