Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 9/F, Lui Che Woo Clinical Sciences Building, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sarcopenia refers to age-related muscle loss, defined using a combination of appendicular muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance measures. The pathogenesis depends on a balance between positive and negative regulators of muscle growth. Sarcopeniaincreases the risk for falls, fractures, dependency, use of hospital services, institutionalization, poor quality of life, and mortality. In clinical practice, brief screening tools, such as the 5-item SARC-F score, may be useful. Although pharmacologic treatments are actively being studied, the current mainstay consists of optimizing nutrition status, in particular protein and vitamin D status, and resistance exercises.