Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
Dietary protein intake may help to manage blood pressure (BP) and prevent complications associated with elevated BP.
The objective of this study was to determine whether 4 wk of increased protein intake (∼25% compared with ∼15% of energy intake that isoenergetically replaces carbohydrate intake) lowers office and daytime BP compared with increased carbohydrate intake.
A randomized, double-blind, parallel study compared consumption of 3 × 20 g protein/d (20% pea, 20% soy, 30% egg, and 30% milk-protein isolate) with 3 × 20 g maltodextrin/d. Protein or maltodextrin were isoenergetically substituted for a sugar-sweetened drink. Primary outcomes were office and daytime BP. A total of 99 men and women [age range: 20-70 y; BMI (in kg/m²): 25-35] with untreated elevated BP (BP ≥130/85 and <160/100 mm Hg) were randomly assigned. Ninety-four completers (51 subjects in the maltodextrin group, 43 subjects in the protein group) were included in the analyses.
Office systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 4.9 ± 1.7 mm Hg (P = 0.005) and 2.7 ± 1.3 mm Hg (P = 0.05) lower, respectively, in the protein group. Daytime SBP was 4.6 ± 1.7 mm Hg lower in the proteingroup (P = 0.006), whereas daytime DBP did not differ between groups (P = 0.37). Urinary sodium excretion was higher in the maltodextrin group (P = 0.004).
Increased protein intake, at the expense of maltodextrin, lowers BP in overweight adults with upper-range prehypertension and grade 1 hypertension. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR 1362.