Friday, August 31, 2012

From Mount Sinai: Macrophages, dendritic cells, and regression of atherosclerosis

 2012;3:286. Epub 2012 Jul 18.

Macrophages, dendritic cells, and regression of atherosclerosis.


Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Mount Sinai Medical Center NY, USA.


Atherosclerosis is the number one cause of death in the Western world. It results from the interaction between modified lipoproteins and cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, and other cellular elements present in the arterial wall. This inflammatory process can ultimately lead to the development of complex lesions, or plaques, that protrude into the arterial lumen. Ultimately, plaque rupture and thrombosis can occur leading to the clinical complications of myocardial infarction or stroke. Although each of the cell types plays roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the focus of this review will be primarily on the macrophages and DCs. The role of these two cell types in atherosclerosis is discussed, with a particular emphasis on their involvement in atherosclerosis regression.

Just when you thought it was safe to go back in the water: Frightening Music Triggers Rapid Changes in Brain Monoamine Receptors

 2012 Aug 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Frightening Music Triggers Rapid Changes in Brain Monoamine Receptors: A Pilot PET Study.


Department of Nuclear Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.


Frightening music can rapidly arouse emotions in listeners that mimic those from actual life-threatening experiences. However, studies of the underlying mechanism for perceiving danger created by music are limited.


We investigated monoamine receptor changes induced by frightening music using (11)C-N-methyl-spiperone ((11)C-NMSP) PET. Ten healthy male volunteers were included, and their psychophysiologic changes were evaluated.


Compared with the baseline condition, listening to frightening music caused a significant decrease in (11)C-NMSP in the right and left caudate nuclei, right limbic region, and right paralimbic region; a particularly significant decrease in the right anterior cingulate cortex; but an increase in the right frontal occipital and left temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex.


Transient fright triggers rapid changes in monoamine receptors, which decrease in the limbic and paralimbic regions but increase in the cerebral cortex.

From U Paris Sorbonne: Gamete donation in France: the future of the anonymity doctrine

 2012 Aug 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Gamete donation in France: the future of the anonymity doctrine.


University of Paris Sorbonne, Paris, France,


In France, since the approval of the first bioethics laws in 1994, the principle of the anonymity of sperm donors has prevailed. This choice is regularly challenged, namely by children who have been conceived under these conditions and have now reached adulthood. In this paper, we will briefly describe the reasons that led practitioners of assisted reproduction to endorse the anonymity principle in 1994. Secondly, we will elaborate on the reasons why this principle is becoming so controversial today. Finally, we shall examine two possible outcomes of the debate, highlighting their respective legitimacy as well as their consequences, as far as the rights of children, the notion of the family, and medical practice are concerned.

Zombie allusions: They just keep on coming-in a VW Zombie Rabbit

VW Zombie Rabbit is focus of latest Depth of Speed vid

Joel Erkkinen's Zombie Rabbit from the Depth of Speed video series

"The VW community here in the Twin Cities is really friendly and inviting," Erkkinen tells Autoblog. "I had people I didn't even know want to come over and help just because they saw my thread on VWVortex."

The Zombie Rabbit slowly transformed from a clapped-out heap into a turbocharged widebody terror thanks to the knowledge and guidance of that community. But it's Erkkinen's attention to detail and eye for style that make the car what it is.

Unable to find a suitable material for the steering wheel cover, Erkkinen scrounged up an old leather jacket from a thrift store and set to cutting his own pattern and stitching the hide by hand. He did the same for the Corbeau Forza seats, covering the race buckets in fabric with custom embroidered Zombie Rabbit emblems.

'Tempos' management in primary care: a key factor for classifying adverse events, and improving quality and safety

 2012 Sep;21(9):729-36.

'Tempos' management in primary care: a key factor for classifying adverse events, and improving quality and safety.


HAS, 2 avenue du stade de France, Saint Denis la Plaine, 93218 France;



The role of time management in safe and efficient medicine is important but poorly incorporated into the taxonomies of error in primary care. This paper addresses the lack of time management, presenting a framework integrating five time scales termed 'Tempos' requiring parallel processing by GPs: the disease's tempo (unexpected rapid evolutions, slow reaction to treatment); the office's tempo (day-to-day agenda and interruptions); the patient's tempo (time to express symptoms, compliance, emotion); the system's tempo (time for appointments, exams, and feedback); and the time to access to knowledge. The art of medicine is to control all of these tempos in parallel and simultaneously.


Two qualified physicians reviewed a sample of 1046 malpractice claims from one liability insurer to determine whether a medical injury had occurred and, if so, whether it was due to one or more tempo-related problems. 623 of these reports were analysed in greater detail to identify the prevalence and characteristics of claims and related time management errors.


The percentages of contributing factors were as follows: disease tempo, 37.9%; office tempo, 13.2%; patient tempo, 13.8%; out-of-office coordination tempo, 22.6%; and GP's access to knowledge tempo, 33.2%.


Although not conceptualised in most error taxonomies, the disease and patient tempos are cornerstones in risk management in primary care. Traditional taxonomies describe events from an analytical perspective of care at the system level and offer opportunities to improve organisation, process, and evidence-based medicine. The suggested classification describes events in terms of (unsafe) dynamic control of parallel constraints from the carer's perspective, namely the GP, and offers improvement on how to self manage and coordinate different contradictory tempos and day-to-day activities. Further work is needed to test the validity and usefulness of this approach.

"circulatory conditions-chiefly cerebrovascular disease and hypertension-were the main reason amenable death rates remained relatively high in the United States"

 2012 Aug 29. [Epub ahead of print]

In Amenable Mortality--Deaths Avoidable Through Health Care--Progress In The US Lags That Of Three European Countries.


Health and Healthcare policy program at RAND Europe, in London, England.


We examined trends and patterns of amenable mortality-deaths that should not occur in the presence of timely and effective health care-in the United States compared to those in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom between 1999 and 2007. Americans under age sixty-five during this period had elevated rates of amenable mortality compared to their peers in Europe. For Americans over age sixty-five, declines in amenable mortality slowed relative to their peers in Europe. Overall, amenable mortality rates among men from 1999 to 2007 fell by only 18.5 percent in the United States compared to 36.9 percent in the United Kingdom. Among women, the rates fell by 17.5 percent and 31.9 percent, respectively. Although US men and women had the lowest mortality from treatable cancers among the four countries, deaths from circulatory conditions-chiefly cerebrovascular disease and hypertension-were the main reason amenable death rates remained relatively high in the United States. These findings strengthen the case for reforms that will enable all Americans to receive timely and effective health care.

All eyes are on Greece. Meanwhile, there are "fears among investors that the world's third largest economy is being driven towards a 'fiscal cliff"'

Japan plans to cut state spending, could run out of money in a month

Japan's government is planning to suspend some state spending as it could run out of cash by October, with a deficit financing bill blocked by opposition parties trying to force Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda into an early election.

31 Aug 2012

"The impasse in Japan's parliament has raised fears among investors that the world's third largest economy is being driven towards a "fiscal cliff", Reuters reported.
"The government running out of money is not a story made up. It's a real threat," Finance Minister Jun Azumi told a news conference, making a last-ditch appeal for cooperation by opposition parties to pass the bill.
"Failing to pass the bill will give markets the impression that Japan's fiscal management rests on shaky ground," he said.
Unless the bill clears the current parliamentary session that ends next week, the government will start suspending or reducing some state spending to avoid running out of money for as long as possible, the finance ministry said."

Zombie allusions: They just keep on coming-infesting Facebook

Facebook Goes Gunning for Zombie “Likes”

AUGUST 31, 2012 AT 9:00 AM 

"Facebook is a ginormous site whose primary currency is “Likes.” So, of course, it has a counterfeit “Like” problem.
Now Mark Zuckerberg and company say they’ve figured out how to crack down on zombie “Likes,” via “automated efforts” that will zap the bogus ones.
blog post announcing the move says that most people won’t notice the change, because “on average, less than 1% of likes on any given Page will be removed.”
But I bet that some big brands and/or personalities that have many millions of “Likes” may see their numbers chopped more dramatically."

Obesity in sub-Saharan Africa

 2012 Aug 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Obesity in sub-Saharan Africa: development of an ecological theoretical framework.


1Department of Kinesiology and Health Sciences, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, USA.


The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). There is a need for theoretical frameworks to catalyze further research and to inform the development of multi-level, context-appropriate interventions. In this commentary, we propose a preliminary ecological theoretical framework to conceptualize factors that contribute to increases in overweight and obesity in SSA. The framework is based on a Causality Continuum model [Coreil et al. Social and Behavioral Foundations of Public Health. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks] that considers distal, intermediate and distant influences. The influences incorporated in the model include globalization and urbanization as distal factors; occupation, social relationships, built environment and cultural perceptions of weight as intermediate factors and caloric intake, physical inactivity and genetics as distant factors. The model illustrates the interaction of factors along a continuum, from the individual to the global marketplace, in shaping trends in overweight and obesity in SSA. The framework will be presented, each influence elucidated and implications for research and intervention development discussed. There is a tremendous need for further research on obesity in SSA. An improved evidence base will serve to validate and develop the proposed framework further.

From Columbia U and U Washington: State of Science of Adherence in Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Microbicide Trials

 2012 Aug 28. [Epub ahead of print]

State of Science of Adherence in Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Microbicide Trials.


*Global Health Research Center of Central Asia and the Social Intervention Group, School of Social Work, Columbia University, New York, NY †Columbia University, New York, NY ‡Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.


For pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and microbicides to effectively prevent HIV, optimal treatment adherence is required. Adherence to these strategies, however, has not been sufficiently studied. This investigation systematically reviews oral PrEP and microbicide trials across 4 domains of adherence: 1) definition and measures used; 2) risks for non-adherence; 3) promotion strategies; and 4) effects on outcomes. Nineteen (n = 19) trials, with 47157 participants, published between 1987 and 2012 were identified. Reported mean adherence to microbicides was 79% and to oral PrEP 87%. Common risks for non-microbicide adherence were decreased motivation over time, sex with primary (non-commercial/casual) partners, and insufficient supply. Oral PrEP non-adherence risks were older age and medication side effects. Psychoeducation and outreach to participants and communities were frequently utilized promotion strategies. Most trials failed to systematically identify barriers and monitor and promote adherence, although adherence moderated outcomes. Recommendations for attending to adherence in future trials are provided.

Be All That You Can Be? "The new [Army] test scraps sit-ups...and reduces the length of a run from 2 miles to 1.5 miles"

Army not changing physical fitness test - for now

By Brock Vergakis

"The Army is keeping its physical fitness test the same way it has for more than three decades — for now.
Before making any changes, the Army's Training and Doctrine Command at Joint Base Langley-Eustis in Virginia says it needs to further study a new test intended to better measure a soldier's baseline physical readiness to perform in combat. About 10,000 soldiers participated in a pilot program with the new test in the past year.
The new test scraps sit-ups, and adds a 60-yard shuttle run and a standing long jump. It also cuts the time allowed for push-ups and reduces the length of a run from 2 miles to 1.5 miles."

From U Leiden: Global posterior prevalence is unique to vertebrates. A dance to the music of time?

 2012 Aug 28. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.23852. [Epub ahead of print]

Global posterior prevalence is unique to vertebrates. A dance to the music of time?


Institute of Biology, University of Leiden, Sylvius Laboratory, Wassenaarseweg 72, 2333BE, Leiden, Netherlands.


We reach the conclusion that posterior prevalence, a collinear property considered important for Hox complex function is so far unique, in a global form, to vertebrates. Why is this? We suspect this is because posterior prevalence is explicitly connected to the vertebrate form of Hox temporal collinearity- which is central to axial patterning.

The evolution of the role of surgery in the management of breast cancer lung metastasis

 2012 Aug;4(4):420-4.

The evolution of the role of surgery in the management of breast cancer lung metastasis.


Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University and Massey Cancer Center, Richmond, Virginia, USA.


Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States. Patients with metastatic disease have a median survival of 12 to 24 months and most present with disseminated disease; however, some present with isolated pulmonary metastases which may benefit from surgical resection. Although the initial experience with resection of pulmonary metastases in the late 19th and early 20th centuries produced some encouraging results, patient selection criteria for resection were strict until the mid-1960's when a significant improvement in survival resulted from aggressive management of pulmonary metastasis in osteosarcoma patients. The application of this approach to breast cancer patients similarly produced encouraging results, with five year survival rates in select patients ranging from 36-54%, but this was not without controversy. In this review, we discuss the evaluation of the breast cancer patient with a pulmonary nodule, the historical evolution of the role of surgery in the management of pulmonary metastasis, as well as the latest evidence to guide patient selection and management.

From U Queensland-Australia: Provision and use of evidence in the Tobacco Harm Prevention Law in Vietnam

 2012 Aug 30. doi: 10.1057/jphp.2012.28. [Epub ahead of print]

Translating knowledge into policy: Provision and use of evidence in the Tobacco Harm Prevention Law in Vietnam.


The University of Queensland, School of Population Health, Herston, QLD 4006, Australia.


Vietnam is currently considering a Tobacco Harm Prevention Law and the Ministry of Health has been asked to provide supporting evidence. This analysis explores factors influencing uptake of evidence in that legislation process. The political environment reflects the government's ambivalence over how to balance health and socioeconomic issues of tobacco control in a state-owned industry. Although the growing presence of transnational tobacco companies is alarming, the role of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in prompting government compliance with set milestones is encouraging. Evidence of effectiveness of interventions for health needs now to be complemented with socioeconomic evaluation, and strengthening of the ties between advocates and decision makers.

Cryosurgery for lung cancer

 2012 Aug;4(4):408-19.

Cryosurgery for lung cancer.


Cryosurgery is suited for patients with lung cancer who are not considered for lung resection because of the advanced stage of the disease or the patient's poor general condition or poor respiratory function and with tumor recurrence following radiotherapy, chemotherapy or lung resection, and those patients who have localized lung cancer but refuse to receive operative therapy. Procedures of cryosurgery for lung cancer can be performed through endobronchial, direct intrathoracic (at exploratory thoracotomy) or percutaneous routes depending upon location and size of tumor. Six hundred and twenty-five patients with Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) received percutaneous cryoablation in Fuda Cancer Hospital Guangzhou, China. One hundred and fifty patients were followed-up for 12 to 38 months. Results showed that 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 64%, 45% and 32%, respectively. The adverse effects after cryosurgery of lung cancer include haemoptysis, pneumothorax, bloody thorax, pleural effusion and pulmonary infection which are generally mild, transient, and recovery with symptomatic management. In vitro studies have shown cryotherapy of lung cancer cells can improve the immune system to trigger the specific anti-tumor response. In the future, comparative studies between this modality and other therapies should be conducted for the treatment of lung cancer. In addition, more attention needs to be put on the immunomodulators that enhance the cryoimmunology.

From the Philadelphia Inquirer: Time to wipe out obesity in kids

Time to wipe out obesity in kids

"EXPERTS FEAR that this generation of kids may be the first to live shorter life expectancies than their parents, thanks in large part to childhood obesity. Today, more than 23 million of our nation's children and teenagers are considered overweight or obese. It's an epidemic that continues to plague this country. Not only is it debilitating physically, but it significantly impacts our already fragile health-care system.

Those affected with childhood obesity are at serious risk for developing health problems such as heart disease, type-2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and other problems that usually affect adults. Each year, childhood obesity costs $14 billion in direct health costs. In Pennsylvania alone, this disease impacts 15 percent of your children."

Zombie allusions: They just keep on coming-on campus all afternoon

Alive at midnight, but Zombie U. afternoons

College students often cheat sleep but simple strategies offer help

Published 10:03 p.m., Thursday, August 30, 2012

"College health officials are finally realizing that healthy sleep habits are a potential miracle drug for much of what ails the famously frazzled modern American college student: anxiety, depression, physical health problems and — more than most students realize — academic troubles. Some studies have found students getting adequate sleep average a full letter grade higher than those who don't.

But adolescent biorhythms make it hard enough for college students to get the sleep they need, a recommended nine hours. On top of that, campus life turns out to resemble a giant laboratory experiment designed for maximum sleep deprivation: irregular schedules, newfound freedom, endless social interaction, loud and crowded housing, late-night exercise and food washed down by booze, coffee and energy drinks. Campuses pulsing with energy at midnight by mid-afternoon resemble Zombie U., with students dozing in library chairs and even in coffee shops.

Sleep tips
Exercise regularly, but not after the early evening. Avoid caffeine after 2 p.m. Try to avoid late-night eating and alcohol, but don't go to bed hungry, either.
Don't use electronics — laptops, tablets, smart phones, etc. — late at night.
Make your bed a place just for sleep. Don't study, watch TV or do anything else there (or not much else).
If you have early classes on some days, try not to sleep in on the others.
Try to avoid naps, and if you do nap, nap before 3 p.m. and for no more than 20 minutes.
Set your alarm clock — but for the evening, at a reasonable bedtime. That way, you're less likely need it in the morning."

Read more:

Zombie allusions: They just keep on coming-dotting the landscape in Tracy, California

Second Thoughts: City takes shot at property zombies
by Jon Mendelson

"Zombies dot the Tracy landscape, lingering beyond their natural lifespan, silent reminders of an economic plague that’s just starting to subside.

And according to some at the city of Tracy, these real estate zombies — vacant buildings boarded up to meet city and Department of Housing and Urban Development standards — are draining the life out of the neighborhoods they inhabit."

Read more: Tracy Press - Second Thoughts City takes shot at property zombies 

"Fifty years ago this month, one of the most influential books of the 20th century was published by the University of Chicago Press."

Thomas Kuhn: the man who changed the way the world looked at science

Fifty years ago, a book by Thomas Kuhn altered the way we look at the philosophy behind science, as well as introducing the much abused phrase 'paradigm shift'

"Fifty years ago this month, one of the most influential books of the 20th century was published by the University of Chicago Press. Many if not most lay people have probably never heard of its author, Thomas Kuhn, or of his book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, but their thinking has almost certainly been influenced by his ideas. The litmus test is whether you've ever heard or used the term "paradigm shift", which is probably the most used – and abused – term in contemporary discussions of organisational change and intellectual progress. A Google search for it returns more than 10 million hits, for example. And it currently turns up inside no fewer than 18,300 of the books marketed by Amazon. It is also one of the most cited academic books of all time. So if ever a big idea went viral, this is it.
Kuhn's version of how science develops differed dramatically from the Whig version. Where the standard account saw steady, cumulative "progress", he saw discontinuities – a set of alternating "normal" and "revolutionary" phases in which communities of specialists in particular fields are plunged into periods of turmoil, uncertainty and angst. These revolutionary phases – for example the transition from Newtonian mechanics to quantum physics – correspond to great conceptual breakthroughs and lay the basis for a succeeding phase of business as usual. The fact that his version seems unremarkable now is, in a way, the greatest measure of his success. But in 1962 almost everything about it was controversial because of the challenge it posed to powerful, entrenched philosophical assumptions about how science did – and should – work.
What made it worse for philosophers of science was that Kuhn wasn't even a philosopher: he was a physicist, dammit. Born in 1922 in Cincinnati, he studied physics at Harvard, graduating summa cum laude in 1943, after which he was swept up by the war effort to work on radar. He returned to Harvard after the war to do a PhD – again in physics – which he obtained in 1949. He was then elected into the university's elite Society of Fellows and might have continued to work on quantum physics until the end of his days had he not been commissioned to teach a course on science for humanities students as part of the General Education in Science curriculum. This was the brainchild of Harvard's reforming president, James Conant, who believed that every educated person should know something about science."

Current State and Future Prospects of Direct-to-Consumer Pharmacogenetics

 2012;3:152. Epub 2012 Aug 20.

Current State and Future Prospects of Direct-to-Consumer Pharmacogenetics.


Carney Centre for Pharmacogenomics, University of Otago Christchurch Christchurch, New Zealand.


Direct-to-consumer (DTC) DNA testing has grown from contentious beginnings into a global industry, by providing a wide range of personal genomic information directly to its clients. These companies, typified by the well-established 23andMe, generally carry out a gene-chip analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using DNA extracted from a saliva sample. These genetic data are then assimilated and provided direct to the client, with varying degrees of interpretation. Although much debate has focused on the limitations and ethical aspects of providing genotypes for disease risk alleles, the provision of pharmacogenetic results by DTC companies is less studied. We set out to evaluate current DTC pharmacogenetics offerings, and then to consider how these services might best evolve and adapt in order to play a potentially useful future role in delivery of personalized medicine.

Thursday, August 30, 2012

Repeat Biopsy for Mutational Analysis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers Resistant to Previous Chemotherapy: Adequacy and Complications

 2012 Aug 28. [Epub ahead of print]

Repeat Biopsy for Mutational Analysis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers Resistant to Previous Chemotherapy: Adequacy and Complications.


Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Department of Pathology, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, and Department of Thoracic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710, Korea.


Purpose:To evaluate the feasibility and safety of repeat biopsy for mutational analysis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have a resistance history to previous chemotherapy.Materials and Methods:This prospective study was institutional review board approved, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Of 126 patients referred for repeat biopsy (hereafter, rebiopsy) with NSCLC that was resistant to conventional chemotherapy or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, 94 patients (31 men, 63 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 57 years ± 10.3) were selected for rebiopsy. Thirty-two patients were excluded for several reasons after strict review of the chest computed tomography (CT) images. Percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsy was performed with C-arm cone-beam CT guidance. The technical success rates for the rebiopsy and the adequacy rates of specimens for mutational analysis were evaluated. Any biopsy-related complications were recorded.Results:The technical success rate for biopsy was 100%. In 75 (80%) of 94 patients, specimens were adequate for mutational analysis. Of 75 specimens, 35 were tested for EGFR mutation, 34 for anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) rearrangement, and six for both. The results were positive for EGFR-sensitizing mutation (exon 19 or 21) in 20, for EGFR T790M mutation in five, and for ALK rearrangement in 11. Postprocedural complications occurred in 13 (14%) of 94 patients.Conclusion:When performed by employing rigorous CT criteria, rebiopsies for the mutational analysis of NSCLCs treated previously with chemotherapy are feasible in all patients and are adequate in approximately four-fifths of patients referred for gene analysis, with acceptable rates of complications.

“The level of risk attributed to normal weight [but] central obesity appears to be similar to that of smoking a pack a day.”

Can Love Handles Kill? Why Having a Paunch May Be Worse Than Being Obese

Fat cells in a protruding belly may be different from fat cells elsewhere in the body—and more hazardous to your health

“The level of risk attributed to normal weight [but] central obesity appears to be similar to that of smoking a pack a day.”

Read more:

Fathers' Emotional Awareness and Children's Empathy and Externalizing Problems: The Role of Intimate Partner Violence

 2012 Aug 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Fathers' Emotional Awareness and Children's Empathy and Externalizing Problems: The Role of Intimate Partner Violence.


Emerging evidence suggests that fathers, more so than mothers, socialize emotions in a gender-stereotyped manner. Gender-stereotyped emotion socialization may be particularly pronounced in men perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV), and may be detrimental to child adjustment, particularly for boys. This study explored the relation between fathers' socialization of children's emotions and child adjustment in families where IPV is present. We hypothesized that in families where there is IPV, fathers' awareness of their children's sadness and fear will be associated with negative child outcomes. Participants were 74 families recruited for a longitudinal study. Interview and questionnaire measures were used to assess IPV and fathers' emotional awareness when children were 5 years old. Child adjustment was measured when children were 16 years old. Results suggested that in families where there is IPV, fathers who were more aware of their children's fear had children who showed lower levels of empathy and higher levels of externalizing problems than children whose fathers were less aware of their fear, specifically for boys. Results are discussed in terms of gender socialization in families where there is IPV.

Potential anticancer properties of grape antioxidants


 2012;2012:803294. Epub 2012 Aug 7.

Potential anticancer properties of grape antioxidants.


Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.


Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera), one of the world's largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted.