Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2012 Feb 17. [Epub ahead of print]
Pathogenesis and Management of Nasal Polyposis in Cystic Fibrosis.
Mainz JG, Koitschev A.
Cystic Fibrosis Center, Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Pulmonology, Jena University Hospital, Kochstrasse 2, 07740, Jena, Germany, email@example.com.
Beginning in preschool age, during their lives, up to 50% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients experience obstructing nasal polyposis (NP), which is rare in non-CF children. Pathogenetic factors of NP in general and especially in CF are still obscure. However, defective epithelial ion transport from mucosal glands plays a central role in CF, and viscous secretions impair mucociliary clearance, promoting chronic pathogen colonization and neutrophil-dominated chronic inflammation. Presently, CF-NP is not curable but can be clinically stabilized, though the large variety of proposed treatment modalities indicates a lack of standardization and of evidence of treatment efficacy. When conservative measures are exhausted, surgical intervention combining individually adapted endoscopic sinus surgery and supportive conservative treatment is performed. Topical steroids, approved as the gold standard for non-CF NP, may be beneficial, but they are discussed to be less effective in neutrophilic inflammation, and CF-specific antimicrobial and mucolytic therapy, as is true of all treatment modalities, urgently requires evaluation by controlled clinical trials within interdisciplinary networks.